Examples of people who may lack capacity include those with:
- a severe learning disability
- a brain injury
- a mental health condition
- a stroke
- unconsciousness caused by an anaesthetic or sudden accident
However, just because a person has one of these conditions does not necessarily mean they lack the capacity to make a specific decision.
Someone can lack the capacity to make some decisions (for example, to decide on complex financial issues) but still have the capacity to make other decisions (for example, to decide what items to buy at the local shop).
The MCA says:
Everyone has the right to make his or her own decisions. Health and care professionals should always assume an individual has the capacity to make a decision themselves unless it is proved otherwise through a capacity assessment.
Individuals must be given help to make a decision themselves. This might include, for example, providing the person with information in a format that is easier for them to understand.
Just because someone makes what those caring for them consider to be an “unwise” decision, they should not be treated as lacking the capacity to make that decision. Everyone has the right to make their own life choices, where they have the capacity to do so.
Where someone is judged not to have the capacity to make a specific decision (following a capacity assessment), that decision can be taken for them, but it must be in their best interests.
Treatment and care provided to someone who lacks capacity should be the least restrictive of their basic rights and freedoms possible, while still providing the required treatment and care.
The MCA also allows people to express their preferences for care and treatment in case they lack the capacity to make these decisions. It also allows them to appoint a trusted person to make a decision on their behalf should they lack capacity in the future.
People should also be provided with an independent advocate who will support them to make decisions in certain situations, such as serious treatment or where the individual might have significant restrictions placed on their freedom and rights in their best interests.